history of nursing and midwifery in ghana
A. Akiwumi, “Higher education for nurses,”, L. Selanders and P. Crane, “The voice of florence nightingale on advocacy,”. The question is whether it is ethically acceptable for nurses to receive gifts in the form of money items from patients before or after treatment? She was one of the few ladies who were educated during Victorian England as a result of her father’s opinion against the norm of the time that women of Nightingale’s class must not attend university and also must not pursue professional careers but rather had to marry and bear children instead . Patients believe that most nurses join the profession for recognition or prestige, passion or humanitarian sentiments, financial security, and guaranteed employment after school. S. M. Regan, Florence Nightingale, Women in the World History Curriculum, March 2016, D. Neuhauser, “Florence Nightingale gets no respect: as a statistician that is,”, C. J. Gill and G. C. Gill, “Nightingale in Scutari: her legacy reexamined,”. Nightingale argued that it was better to train nurses than women doctors. Ghana is a West African country with a nurse‐population ratio of 1:542 (Ghana Health Service, 2017). The development and evolution of the nursing profession are intricately connected to historical influences throughout the ages, beginning in antiquity . The International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) maintains standards for midwife education and practice, but lay or informally trained midwives are outside the scope of their regulations. 6. The deplorable conditions at Scutari reinforced this viewpoint, leading to her advocating for the importance of a suitable environment for patient both internally and extremely. The nursing and midwifery professions remain female‐dominated in Ghana and as such fewer males enrol as trainees (Adu‐Gyamfi & Brenya, 2016; Tagoe & Quarshie, 2017; Talley, 2006). As her work in nursing was acknowledged, she was consulted in the organization of training nurses; however, her efforts in Crimean War intervened. Akiwumi further argues that under such conditions it was difficult for the nurse to assume responsibility and take initiative or make decisions under emergency situations. Do you have relatives that you look after? Towards the mid-20th century, a shift in priority from health of the community to the health and well-being of the individual occurred and towards the end of 20th century another shift toward care of the patient in the community occurred. School of Nursing and Midwifery. This is one of the oldest nurse training colleges in Ghana. Reasons assigned to the swearing of the oath are to help the nurses abide by rules and regulations of the profession, to be committed to the course, to exhibit good professional habits, to respect and honour their work, and to treat all patients equally. 2016, Article ID 9754845, 14 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9754845, 1Department of History and Political Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. University of Ghana, Legon, Accra 2. For a hospital or clinic to run effectively and efficiently, the availability of laboratory equipment which is in good conditions must be at the disposal of nurses. Under the buildings, as a commission of inquiry later reported, ‘were sewers…loaded with filth…through which the wind blew sewer air up the pipes of numerous open privies into the corridors and wards were the sick were lying’ on straw mats in a state of overcrowding that got even worse after Inkerman” . There is also the need to further assess how nurses who know their peculiarities or idiosyncrasies due to their temperament are able to dovetail that into their professional training to make them more functional to attain optimum performance at the work place. Students pay Most Institutions’ School fees via the Student Portal, this may not be the case in this particular institution. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/415020/Florence-Nightingale, http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/IMOW.html, http://www.victorianweb.org/history/crimea/florrie.html, http://spartacus-educational.com/industry.html, http://News.nurse.com/apps.dll/article?AID=2011110623002, http://www.online.ben.edu/blog/health/Florence-nightingales-philosophy-of-nursing, http://online.ben.edu/blog/health/florence-nightingales-philosophy-of-nursing-have-we-met-the-mark, http://www.thetransformedsoul.com/additional-studies/miscellaneous-studies/the-four-human-temperaments. In 2007 Valley View University (VVU) Department of Nursing was established, with the purpose of elevating the standard of nursing education and practice in Ghana and the West African region. When Nightingale returned home to London, she was honoured as a national heroine. This raises the question on whether modern nursing has met or exceeded the standard set by Florence Nightingale. While studying the history of midwifery in general, one cannot overlook the entrance of nurse-midwifery on the scene. Florence held an immense judgment about the rights of women therefore in her book Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth; she argued muscularly for the elimination of limits that prohibited women from having careers . Before the formal beginning of medicine in Ghana in 1878, nurses in the country were British expatriates who were sent down to primarily nurse other expatriates. This trait is no different from nursing in Ghana. ... Kenteh Holy Family Nurses and Midwifery Training College Cut off Points... March 1, 2020. 9. The expectation was that this training among others would enhance the performance of the nurse in the general delivery of care to the patients. With the help from her affluent friends and John Delane at the Times, she was able to raise 59,000 to advance the quality of nursing. Forty percent (40%) of the respondents claim their work affects their family life. Unfortunately, traditional healing was not recognized by the Europeans but, with time, they came to accept it as they gradually acknowledged the need to provide health service to the Africans. Nursing in Ghana is a crucial subject that permeates almost every issue in the society especially the field of hospital care. We can look up to the rest of the world and adopt their good practices that are having great impact on their healthcare delivery in terms of personnel, management, and accommodation among many others. Be informed, self examine your breasts for abnormalities and get screened at any nearby clinic. In order to get a fair assessment and not a one-sided version, a total number of forty (40) patients were also engaged to answer some questions based on the output and attitude of nurses and the profession as a whole. The questionnaire further probed into the number of years the nurses have served in the profession. In 1958, a government decision to train doctors locally at the University of Ghana necessitated enlargement and modernization of Korle-Bu hospital to become a teaching hospital . Globally some studies have been done to study nursing icons like her. Long contact hours of nurses with patients, according to Akiwumi, should afford nurses an opportunity to know more about the behaviour of human beings in general than doctors. Memoire Online. This study does an analysis of existing literature on Florence Nightingale and the nature of nursing in Ghana from the colonial times. The progress of nursing education in Ghana between 1957 and 1970 is described by vigorous change and progression . Table 5 is a reflection of the number of nurses that have dependants and how this affects their personal lives. She settled in London and lived a retired life of an invalid although she spent great deal of time offering counsel and support through her writings and also verbally. L. Selanders, “Florence Nightingale,” February 2015. Among them is that “Florence Nightingale battled with the military authorities, the purveyors department and was a thorn in the side of the superintendent of Army medical services” . Patients do not get the needed services that are required for them. Due to her father’s opinion against this norm, he single-handedly taught her Italian, Latin, Greek, philosophy, history, writing, and mathematics . Therefore, she tried to keep up with public health matters and continued to write corny addresses to probationers until 1889 but by now she was losing her eye sight. C. J. Gill and G. C. Gill have also noted that there was a high case of corruption in the camp and this led to the siphoning off medical supplies; in order to curb this problem Nightingale established a parallel supply mechanism for critical materials and food, and this step made her prove that the official supplies were being stolen by sending her representatives to Turkish markets to buy back the purloined goods . It is very important to note that the Spartacus Educational Publishers did an extensive research about the theme under review. It has been realized that international learning practice can offer outstanding prospect for nursing students to exercise nursing in cultural systems diverse from their own, gain an increased global outlook, and enhance their cultural capability. Her lessons have become a roadmap for future generations. He further stated that Ghana had only an estimated ten thousand nurses available to provide care to a population which was almost twenty million . The second field influenced by Nightingale is hospital epidemiology. Western Hills School of Nursing, Accra. The School is the best Nursing and Midwifery School in Ghana offering credible, high standard and competitive Nursing and Midwifery courses that is comparable to other programmes globally. This assertion will be proven true or false in the course of the discussion in relation to nurses to patients’ relationship. Cohen recounts the situation that Nightingale and her party of nurses met when they arrived at Scutari as follows: “The conditions Nightingale and her party found when they arrived at Scutari on November 5, the day of the major battle of Inkerman were appalling. In 2007 Valley View University (VVU) Department of Nursing was established, with the purpose of elevating the standard of nursing education and practice in Ghana and the West African region. Nurses should also be able to meet the needs of their patients without compromising their values and beliefs . Table 4 shows that patients generally treat nurses well. Where we are now. VISION. According to Akiwumi in 1928 midwifery training started in the maternity hospital, then newly built in Korle-Bu. According to the Spartacus research on Florence biographer Colin Mathew emphasized that when Florence was sixty years, she considered herself old. To a large extent, the frontiers of nursing have expanded since the time of Florence Nightingale. Sidney Herbert later became a foreign secretary for war and requested the service of Florence Nightingale to lead a team of thirty-eight nurses to assist at the main British Army hospital at Scutari, near Constantinople, to cure British wounded soldiers of the Crimean War . Through her social acquaintances, she became the Superintendent of the Institution for Sick Gentlewomen in Distressed Circumstances in London. Also the absence of needed facilities, lack of incentives, misconduct or attitude of some patients, delay of remuneration, and inadequate staff hands are other examples. Nursing in Ghana is a crucial subject that permeates almost every issue in the society especially the field of hospital care. According to Barbara Dossey, “Nightingale saw that nurses could be healing presence to patients, nurses should not go in angry and frustrate but convey a sense of calmness and intention.” Not only could nurses help influence the patient’s environment to facilitate the healing recovery but they are also part of the environment. This assertion was deduced after a frequency was created for the questions based on their preference in terms of the hospital they attend and the mode of payment. The findings do not reflect the perception in Ghana that nurses generally take money or gifts from patients. Florence Nightingale became involved in the Crimean War (1853–1856) after hearing about the squalid conditions of soldiers who had been injured. Several changes including the need for nurses to receive a four-year training, the discontinuation of prenursing course, and the requirement for student nurses to be supernumerary to ward stuff and the need for tutors and clinical instructors at the training centres were recommended . 4. According to Bloy’s research in March 1854, the Crimea War broke out and the sufferings of the wounded soldiers created anger in Britain. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing (OJIN) is a peer-reviewed, online publication that addresses current topics affecting nursing practices, research, education, and the wider healthcare sector. Her efforts to seek nurse’s training were hindered by her family as an inappropriate activity for a woman of her calibre . From the extroverted personalities that include the choleric and sanguine personality types are more outgoing, more sociable, and more comfortable in a crowd . In 1987, the College was given accreditation by the Nurses and Midwives' Council of Ghana to offer a State Registered Nursing (SRN) Programme. Nursing & Midwifery Council of Ghana School of Nursing ( University of Ghana) Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chwinui N (2010). Although this was an erroneous theory, it focused on the role of the environment in relation to illness. Launch of Online CPDs. She believed nurses could use sunlight, fresh air, pure water, cleanliness, and efficient drainage to allow nature to positively affect the patient’s body, mind, and spirit, a revolutionary concept at the time. Here is the Nursing And Midwifery Training College Courses (programmes) In Ghana - Complete Overview all the courses (programmes) offered at the Nurses And Midwifery Training Colleges and how to become a nurse in Ghana. The varied information has been thematically pieced together to make inferences that are of great interest to nursing practitioners, policy makers, administrators, and educators among others. The nurse should therefore be equipped to direct her actions and verbal expressions on the basis of a sound understanding of human behaviour . She was the lady-in-chief . Also, the introverted personalities, that is, melancholy and phlegmatic personality types, are shyer and reserved and anxious about being in crowd, especially at being singled out in a crowd . Reasons given for why they would encourage their relatives are based on humanitarian values, prestige, remuneration, communication skills, knowledge acquisition, inspiration, easy accessibility of employment, and increasing the number of staff. Since the twentieth century, the expectation of patients and the larger segment of society is that nurses will be able to perform their duties beyond the nineteenth and twentieth century’s standard set by Florence Nightingale. This and many tremendous changes manifested in nursing education in Ghana. The Nursing School initially prepared students for the Qualified Registered Nursing (QRN) programme. In this regard, she saw the expansion of nursing as an essential force for growing healthcare needs in sectors outside the hospital. She preferred working behind the scene to get laws changed and disapproved of women making speeches in public . Her significant contributions include her advocacy for patient’s environment connected to his or her health and advocacy in her leadership roles. For instance, this is an account that a fever casualty brought to Scutari gave about the changes that he noticed, “everything changed for the better. Firstly, it was made to be firmly restricted to environment which included a nurse’s home with a matron who served as a parent or guardian. History of Midwifery Midwifery is an occupation based on helping women through the childbirth process that has played a significant role through history. In an attempt to make a fair assessment of the twenty-first century Florence Nightingale in Ghana, the research called for the distribution of questionnaires to a number of nurses in Kumasi and its environs. Valley View University, Oyibi, Accra 3. CERTIFICATE AWARDED BY: KNUST, GHANA NURSING AND MIDWIFERY TRAINING COLLEGE KPEMBE LOCATION: Kpembe DATE OF ACCREDITATION: September 1, 2014 PERIOD: Three (3) years EXPIRY DATE: August 31, 2017 CERTIFICATE AWARDED BY: Diploma in Registered Midwifery and KNUST NURSING AND MIDWIFERY TRAINING COLLEGE, KORLE BU, ACCRA … However, Nightingale did not directly address the concept of advocacy. It also suggests that there are fewer nurses in the profession as compared to people who patronize the various hospitals within the Kumasi area and its environs. Significantly, the number of nurses and midwives increased side by side with the increase of the medical officers especially from 1952 to 1988. In the field, these nurses were strictly under medical supervision . Florence’s father was a “landed gentleman” who set up a lead and weaving factory . The Nursing and Midwifery Council of Ghana will from January 2017 roll out the new requirements for the renewal of Professional Identification Number (PIN) and Auxiliary Identification Number (AIN) for practitioners. 1. As a result, Rev. Midwifery - Midwifery - Midwifery in the modern era: Midwifery practice throughout the world remains very culturally entrenched, and specific standards and education for midwives vary by country. Sr. Catherine (Patrick) Shean of the Medical Mission Sisters founded the Nursing School on 21 st January 1957. Most of her significant contribution to nursing is learned from her advocacy. She helped the soldiers in the hospital write letters to their families because many could not read and write. Twenty-seven (27) responded yes while thirteen (13) responded no. If the majority of her contributions to the treatment of the sick and the injured did not give credence to receiving of gifts from patients for whatever reason that might have come up, there is the need to focus on this as a form of Magna Carta in our discourse to improve the general nursing profession in Ghana and Kumasi in particular. She offered emotional and spiritual comfort of care to the sick and the dying men as she walked down the dark hall with her lamp. Nightingale’s spell at the Crimean was marked by many hardships. “Nightingale environment theory stemmed from her core belief that nursing was in essence an act of using the environment to assist the patient in his or her recovery” . As a result of this, she helped to care for her sick relatives and tenants on the family estates. She believed in miasmatism, the idea that foul odors caused disease. 3. However, the Spartacus Publishers continue to argue that Nightingale powerfully contributed to the passing of Contagious Diseases Act. Dr. Whitfield who is an adjunct faculty member in the online MSN program at Benedictine University conducted a research and published an article about the philosophy of Florence Nightingale to examine if present nursing has been able to meet the mark. In the article “The Four Human Temperaments,” Erkstrand argues that the four basic human temperaments help us to more fully understand our basic behavioural disposition . It was required that there was some knowledge in social and behavioural sciences. Florence Nightingale was convinced that a patient’s environment was connected to his or her health. Increment of remuneration and other service allowances. Check the link to the student portal of the University below and make the school fees payment. Bloy a Ph.D. Senior Research fellow at the Victoria Web conducted a research about the life of Florence Nightingale and the role she played in the Crimea War. Florence found a great relief in her religious belief; therefore, at the age of sixteen she received one of several “calls from God.” She saw this meticulous calling as decreasing human suffering. Nursing education in Ghana prior to independence must be understood in the context of the organization of healthcare services by the colonial administrators . The Holy Family Nursing and Midwifery Training College was then the only instituiton in the Brong-Ahafo Region which trained qualified nurses. Only about 2% of the Africans received treatments from this governmental health service and the majority sort treatment from traditional medical practitioners. A follow-up question was if they treat all patients equally. Sr. Rosemary Smith to train midwives for the hospitals. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Some of the respondents believe with time services rendered will improve while others believe it will deteriorate with time. In 1983, the United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (UKCC) was set up, replacing the General Nursing Council for England and Wales established by the Nurses Registration Act 1919, the Central Midwives Board in London and seven other bodies. “Modern nursing derives so completely from the examples and teachings of Florence Nightingale that is hard to pick out the particular practices that owe their existence to her influence. 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